Kelab /     Contact Us
skip to the main content area of this page
  Links (PDF/DOC Format)

Items in red have been updated




Robert N. Coulson and Kier D. Klepzig




The USDA Forest Service, Southern Experiment Station, has commissioned the synthesis of an encyclopedia on the southern pine beetle (SPB). This pest insect continues to affect significantly the resources and conditions of Southern forest landscapes and urban environments. The last effort to synthesize the knowledge base for the SPB was the compendium produced by Thatcher et al. (1980). This laudable document can be viewed at <> and it represents a good model for the quality of product we are seeking in the SPB Encyclopedia. The knowledge base for the SPB has expanded greatly over the past 27 years as a result of scientific discovery, development of new technologies, and novel application approaches. Accordingly, the GOAL of the SPB Encyclopedia is to develop a comprehensive and interpreted summary of current knowledge on the insect.

The SPB Encyclopedia will be a part of the Forest Encyclopedia Network (FEN) <> . The Senior FEN Editors are H. Michael Rauscher (USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville , NC ) and William G. Hubbard (Southern Region Extension Forestry, Athens , GA ). Currently the FEN contains five volumes: (i) The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems , (ii) The Encyclopedia of Southern Bioenergy, (iii) The Encyclopedia of Southern Forest Science , (iv) The Encyclopedia of Southern Fire Science , and (v) The Encyclopedia of Forest Environmental Threats . The SPB Encyclopedia will be the sixth addition to FEN. Robert Coulson and Kier Klepzig are serving as Editors for the SPB Encyclopedia. Matt Ayres ( Dartmouth College ), F. P. Hain (NC State University), James Meeker (USDA Forest Service, FHP) and F. M. Stephen ( University of Arkansas ) are serving as an Advisory Committee for the project.

Mike Rauscher, Bill Hubbard, and the Editors for the other volumes in the FEN network have captured most of the gremlins that plagued the production of the existing suite of encyclopedias. The following commentary is intended as a preface to the SPB Encyclopedia, and it has been drawn from the experiences of the other editors of FEN volumes. The following topics are considered: (1) the general approach that will be followed in producing the SPB volume, (2) the content of the SPB volume, and (3) general guidelines for preparing manuscripts for the SPB volume.


General Approach

The SPB Encyclopedia is intended to provide a comprehensive interpreted synthesis of the knowledge base on the SPB for use by natural resource professionals and the public. The encyclopedia will be a hypertext document addressed through the INTERNET. The desired content of the SPB Encyclopedia has been defined by the Editors and the Advisory Committee (see below). The general approach that will be followed in the production of the volume are as follows:

  1. Technically knowledgeable individuals with demonstrated performance as authors will be contracted to write individual chapters (or parts of chapters). These individuals will receive an honorarium for their contribution, once the manuscripts have been accepted.
  2. Robert Coulson and Kier Klepzig are serving as Technical Editors for the volume and will review each manuscript. In addition, a Scientific Editor will review each manuscript, make suggestions regarding clarity, and ensure that formatting guidelines have been followed.
  3. Once the authors have responded to comments by the editors, each manuscript will be peer reviewed by two referees. Authors will be asked to nominate individuals they feel can provide knowledgeable reviews. The authors will be asked to respond to commentary provided by the referees and edit their manuscript as appropriate.
  4. The final accepted manuscript will next be submitted to Mike Rauscher, who will facilitate the hypertext mark-up. Mike employs an individual who is experienced at this task. Once the mark-up is completed, authors will be asked to review and comment on their individual chapters.


Content of the SPB Encyclopedia

The content and organization of the SPB Encyclopedia (defined below) has been the topic of considerable discussion among the Editors and the Advisory Committee. The outline represents our view of the relevant subjects that comprise the knowledge base on the SPB. As the encyclopedia will be periodically updated in future years, the subject outline was organized to accommodate this eventuality. The Mind Map for the SPB Encyclopedia is illustrated in Figure 1.


Figure 1.-- Mind Map of the topical organization of the Southern Pine Beetle Encyclopedia.




The topical outline for the SPB Encyclopedia is follows:



I. Southern Pine Beetle Ecology

A. Individuals

  1. Systematics
  2. Natural History
  3. Behavior (e.g., host/tree interactions, semiochemicals, etc.)

B. Populations

  1. Within-Tree
  2. Within-Stand
  3. Within-Landscape
  4. Within-Ecoregion

C. Communities (accommodations)

  1. The Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild
  2. Symbionts
  3. Predators
  4. Mutualists
  5. Parasites
  6. Competitors

II. Southern Pine Beetle Impact

A. Impact Assessment

  1. Economic
  2. Ecological
  3. Social
  4. Political

B. Monitoring

  1. State and Private Forests
  2. National Forest System
    a. Aerial Sketch-Mapping
    b. Survey (Data Collection)
    c. Database Management
    d. Operational Use of Survey Information

III. Silviculture and Management

A. Risk and Hazard Assessment
B. Forest Establishment (Prevention Strategies)
C. Restoration Strategies
D. Management Decision-making


IV. Treatment Tactics and Strategies

A. Chemical
B. Semiochemical
C. Biological
D. Mechanical



The detail subject content for each of the basic elements of the outline has not been specified. We want the individual authors to have control in defining the relevant subject content for their chapters in the encyclopedia.


General Guidelines for Preparing a Manuscript for

 the Southern Pine Beetle Encyclopedia


Following are instructions and for preparing your manuscript for the Southern Pine Beetle Encyclopedia. The commentary that follows is based on the experiences from past editors of the encyclopedias in FEN network. The intent is to standardize the format for the SPB Encyclopedia and thereby expedite the production of the volume. In the following instructions we make reference to several documents, which can serve as models. For your convenience each of the documents referred to below is posted on the SPB Encyclopedia website <>.

If you have any questions, please contact Robert Coulson at the following e-mail address
<> or at 979 845-9725.


General Style and Formatting SPB_general paper template SPB_custom_dictionary SPB_Pye_threats-template

We request that documents be submitted in Word “doc” format. The general formatatting for the SPB encyclopedia is defined and illustrated in the document: “SPB_general paper template.” An example of a paper prepared using this format is illustrated in the document: “SPB_sample paper.” If you are familiar with “Styles and Formatting” features of MS Word you can develop a template to automate execution of the suggested format. John Pye (Editor of the Encyclopedia of Forest Environmental Threats) has prepared such a template, using the formats illustrated in the referenced documents, which he has provided for our use. This template is labeled “SPB_Pye_threats-template” on the SPB Encyclopedia website. Open your document and then choose Tools, Templates, and Add-Ins; select the template file using the Attach…button and check the box Automatically update document styles. The styles in the template will now be available for your use. See also the SPB_custom_dictionary, which addresses vocabulary and abbreviations that have multiple flavors.


Summarize in the Abstract

The abstract will appear on the top web page of your section. It should summarize and synthesize the content in the remainder of your paper. A person should be able to read the abstract and understand the overall organization, major issues covered by the paper, and important and useful results presented. The details supporting this material should be the main body of the paper. The abstract length should be ca. 400 words.


Use the Inverted Pyramid Writing Style

The Inverted Pyramid style of writing is a particularly useful approach to writing an encyclopedia manuscript. Refer to the document entitled “Inverted pyramid story format” by Ken Blake for an explanation. This style will help in developing the web pages for your manuscript. Several general instructions follow: Place the most important information at the top, just like in a newspaper article. The first sentence is especially important, as we will use the first sentence after a heading as the description for that web page. Placing important information first lets readers quickly decide if they should continue reading that page. Text further down should expand on the information in the description and provide supporting detail. All of the contributors to the SPB Encyclopedia are experienced writers and the main issue is the production of an informative manuscript in a timely fashion, i.e., the editors are not asking you to become a journalist, but if you can use the Inverted Pyramid approach, please do.


Use Endnotes for Citations SPB guidelines_for_citations

Use Endnotes to keep track of your reference, insert your in-text citations, and build your References Cited section. Use the output format for Environmental Entomology. Providing us your citations in this format will also help us import the citation information into the structured citation database used on the web. See “SPB guidelines_for_citations” on the SPB Encyclopedia website for additional useful information on formatting citations.


Format Tables as Tables

Use MS Word's table function to construct your tables, or use Excel and then use Paste, Special, Formatted text to insert as a table. Put the tables after References Cited, forcing a new page at the start of each table using Insert, Break, Page Break or just Control-Enter. In structuring your tables be aware that the web does not handle wide tables very well, i.e., keep them narrow. See “SPB_Sample_Table” on the SPB Encyclopedia website for an example of a properly formatted table.


Figures SPB Permission letter

Illustrations (such as charts, maps, drawings, and photographs) are figures. Original or public domain graphics are encouraged, with color preferred. Recognize that graphics on the web will be limited to about 1000 pixels wide and high, and preferably smaller. Graphics will look best if they use the blues, golds, greens and magentas found on Reasonable RGB values (in hex) would be 0000FF, FF9900, 336633, 800080 but you are not restricted to these. Please submit each graphic as a stand alone graphics file in GIF, JPG, or PNG format, named to reflect your chapter and the figure number (and optionally, panel) within it. If you use the provided template, you can format figure titles as "Figure Title," the description can be in Body Text style. We need the description to convey to our audience the meaning of the graphic much like if you were describing it to someone over the phone. Place all tables and figures at the end of the manuscript, forcing a new page before each new table or figure.

Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to use all materials that are copyrighted. The document "SPB_Permission ltr" can be used a model.


Manuscript Format

Manuscripts should be structured as follows:


Author’s Name

Author’s Identification


Text (with appropriate headings)


Literature Cited




Detailed Instructions for Manuscripts

Detailed instructions for formatting manuscripts are contained on the SPB Encyclopedia website. Refer to: SPB_Detailed Instructions_Authors. The instructions have been used for the production of the other volumes in the FEN and adherence to them greatly eases our editing chores and facilitates the hypertext mark-up process. Please pay close attention to the instructions. The yin/yang situation is that the content editors (Robert and Kier) are concerned primarily with substance and the senior FEN Editors (Mike and Bill) are focused on the hypertext presentation and of the encyclopedia. So, in the words of Mr. Wolf (Pulp Fiction): “Please, with sugar on top, follow the instructions.”

Thatcher, R. C., J. L. Searcy, J. E. Coster, and G. D. Hertel (Eds.). 1980. The Southern Pine Beetle. USDA For. Serv. and Sci. and Educ. Admin. Tech. Bull. 1631.